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Table 4 Emerging screening criteria proposed over the past 40 years in the context of CKD screening (adapted from Andermann et al. [50])

From: On the rationale of population screening for chronic kidney disease: a public health perspective

  Criteria Comment regarding CKD screening
1 The screening programme should respond to a recognized need. The current situation of population ageing with increasing incidence of CKD and ESRD and their associated costs strongly suggest that there is a need.
2 The objectives of screening should be defined at the outset. The objective should be to decrease all-cause and CV mortality as well as ESRD incidence and mortality and also to improve the quality of life of people living with CKD.
3 There should be a defined target population. Although no consensus exists for CKD screening, the sharp age-related increase in CKD prevalence suggests starting screening after the age of 50 years.
4 There should be scientific evidence of screening programme effectiveness. No such evidence currently exists.
5 The programme should integrate education, testing, clinical services and programme management. No programme is currently being tested.
6 There should be quality assurance, with mechanisms to minimize potential risks of screening. No programme is currently being tested.
7 The programme should ensure informed choice, confidentiality and respect for autonomy. No programme is currently being tested.
8 The programme should promote equity and access to screening for the entire target population. No programme is currently being tested.
9 Programme evaluation should be planned from the outset. No programme is currently being tested.
10 The overall benefits of screening should outweigh the harm. No such evidence currently exists.
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, ESRD end-stage renal disease