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Table 1 Risk factors for low 25OHD concentrations

From: The importance of vitamin D in maternal and child health: a global perspective

Risk factors that limit skin exposure to UVB rays  
 Latitudes above 40° north  
 Winter season  
 Exposure in early morning and evening (before 10 AM, after 4 PM)  
 Cloud cover and atmospheric pollution  
 Limited time spent outdoors  
 Customary dress that conceals large portions of the body  
 Sunscreen use  
 Dark skin pigmentation  
 Older age  
Risk factors that limit dietary exposure to vitamin D  
 Low dietary intake of oily fish and egg yolks  
 Vegetarian diets  
 Low/no dietary intake of vitamin D fortified foods  
 Exclusive breastfeeding in infants  
 No intake of vitamin D supplements  
Other risk factors that alter vitamin D supply or metabolism  
 Vitamin D status of infant depends on vitamin D status of mother during pregnancy  
 Low dietary calcium intake  
 Genetic factors that affect vitamin D physiology and requirements  
 Poor renal function  
 Liver disease and cholestasis  
 Chronic disease  
 Malabsorption (coeliac, inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, etc.)