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Table 1 General characteristics and main findings of studies addressing SRH in LAC mining contexts

From: What is known about sexual and reproductive health in Latin American and Caribbean mining contexts? A systematic scoping review

Authors (year) Country, sub-region Mining features Aims Population (n) Main SRH findings
Santos et al. (1995) [42] Brazil, Pará (AR) Gold ASM/informal Describe general health conditions in a (mining) community General population (n = 223) Hep B prevalence = 85%. Syphilis prevalence = 41.6% (males, 33%; females, 9%); the highest among miners (48%) and sex workers (38%).
Souto et al. (1998) [45] Brazil, Mato Grosso (AR) Golda Determine the prevalence and risk factors of Hep B virus among immigrants General population (n = 783) Hep B prevalence = 54.7%. Significant association between HBV markers and having lived in a gold-mining camp.
Faas et al. (1999) [38] Venezuela, Bolívar (AR) Gold Industrial and ASM/informal Determine the prevalence of HIV/STDs and implement prevention workshops General population (survey, n = 2000; biological tests, n = 893) HIV prevalence = 1%. Syphilis prevalence = 16.6%; highest among female sex workers (29.5%) and health care workers (21.7%). History of STDs = 19.6%.
González and Rodríguez-Acosta (2000) [36] Venezuela, Bolívar (AR) Golda Determine the prevalence of STDs, among other health conditions Attendants to a local health service (n = 166) Prevalence of syphilis = 6%; gonorrhea = 4.8%; and HIV = 0%. History of STDs = 27.7%.
Souto et al. (2001) [44] Brazil, Mato Grosso (AR) Golda Determine the prevalence and risk factors of Hep B and C (and HBV subtypes) Population of mine camps (n = 520) Prevalence of Hep B = 82.9% and Hep C = 2.1%. HBsAg positivity was significantly associated with previous STDs.
Palmer et al. (2002) [41] Guyana (AR) Gold ASMa Determine the prevalence of HIV Mineworkers—mostly males (n = 216) HIV prevalence = 6.5%.
Seguy et al. (2008) [43] Guyana, three regions (AR) Gold and diamondsa Determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis Male mineworkers (n = 651) Prevalence of HIV = 3.9% and syphilis = 6.4%. Knowledge on HIV = 75%, having had casual sex in the last year = 54%, and having had sex with sex workers = 14.8%. HIV was significantly associated with history of syphilis and not having used condom with last casual sex partner.
Miranda et al. (2009) [39] Brazil, Pará (AR) Gold ASMa Describe the reproductive profile of and prevalence of STDs among women living in a former mining village Women attending to a local health facility (n = 209) Prevalence of HIV = 1.9%, gonorrhea = 2.4%, and HPV = 3.8%. History of previous STDs = 11%, having been involved in prostitution = 15.8%, domestic violence reported = 17.7%, having been raped = 10%, and having had an abortion = 29.2%.
Astete et al. (2010) [37] Peru, Apurimac Gold, silver, copper, iron Industrial/formal (Pre-exploitation) Determine the prevalence of infectious diseases, mental health, and environmental pollution in a community surrounding an upcoming mining project General population (n = 453) No cases of HIV and Hep C or D. Prevalence of syphilis = 1.4% (similar to the national) and Hep B = 7.1% (lower than the national).
Orellana et al. (2013) [40] Peru, three departments (AR) Gold ASM/informal Examine structural factors related to the increased HIV/STD vulnerability among indigenous people Indigenous population (40 in-depth interviews; nine focus groups, n = 98) Complex interactions between structural factors characterize Amazon rivers in Peru as risk environments for the HIV/STDs spread among indigenous communities.
Castro-Arroyave et al. (2016) [46] Colombia, Antioquia Gold Informala Implement a CBPR intervention of HIV prevention and measure the prevalence of HIV Community leaders (n = 10); general population (n = 277; survey and HIV tests, n = 183) No cases of HIV. Prevalence of syphilis = 2.2%. Lack of knowledge, false beliefs, and stigma regarding HIV were identified. Participants increased their knowledge and changed perceptions about HIV issues.
  1. AR Amazon Region, ASM artisanal and small-scale mining, CBPR community-based participatory research, Hep hepatitis
  2. aScale and/or formality status not mentioned