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Table 4 Self-assessment of competencies on leadership: descriptive statistics for pretest, posttest, and learning gains and statistics for paired t tests

From: Is blended learning and problem-based learning course design suited to develop future public health leaders? An explorative European study

Leadership domain (topic of teaching) M (SD) pretest M (SD) posttest M (SD) gains t (df = 18) p
Systems Thinking 2.28 (0.65) 3.26 (0.59) 0.98 (0.69) 6.21 .0000
Political Leadership 1.91 (0.83) 2.95 (0.75) 1.04 (0.56) 8.10 .0000
Inspiring and Motivating Others 2.29 (0.74) 3.15 (0.81) 0.86 (0.76) 4.92 .0001
Building and Leading Interdisciplinary Teams 2.49 (0.57) 3.21 (0.84) 0.72 (0.53) 5.84 .0000
Leadership and Effective Communication 2.59 (0.63) 3.11 (0.73) 0.51 (0.59) 3.79 .0013
Leading Change 2.17 (0.92) 2.89 (0.82) 0.73 (0.83) 3.82 .0013
Emotional Intelligence and Leadership in Teams 3.02 (0.84) 3.28 (0.74) 0.26 (0.96) 1.20 .25
Ethics and Professionalism 2.81 (0.89) 3.10 (0.82) 0.29 (0.94) 1.35 .20