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Table 2 Summary of research articles describing the health status of the early care and education workforce identified in a scoping review

From: The health status of the early care and education workforce in the USA: a scoping review of the evidence and current practice

Source (author, year)Target population (n)MethodsHealth outcome(s) (measurement tool)
Becker et al., 2017 [12]HS teachers (n = 1001) in PennsylvaniaWeb-based survey of HS teachers in 37 Pennsylvania HS Programs.- Depression (CES-D)
- Dispositional Mindfulness (CAMS-R)
- Workplace stress (JCQ)
Denham et al., 2017 [13]Female lead teachers from both CCC and HS (n = 127) in a Mid Atlantic USA cityWeb-based survey of female lead teachers at for-profit, faith-based, and university child care work settings, as well as HS programs.- Child Care Worker Job Stress (CCW-JSI)
Figueroa and Wiley, 2016 [14]FCC providers (n = 107) in a Midwestern USA cityWeb-based or paper survey of licensed FCC providers recruited through local child care resource and referral agencies.- Physical Activity (Go NAP SACC Physical Activity Self-Assessment)
Grant et al., 2016 [15]CCC teachers (n = 1129) from all 50 states and Washington, DCPaper survey of teachers from a national sample of ECE programs.- General Stress (Perceived Stress Scale)
- Job-relate emotional exhaustion
Halloran et al., 2018 [16]HS teachers (n = 85) in Rhode IslandPaper survey of HS teachers from 22 HS centers in Rhode Island.- Fruit and vegetable intake (FVS)
Hibbs-Ship et al., 2015 [17]HS staff (n = 154) in ColoradoPaper surveys of teaching, administrative, program, foodservice, and transportation staff at HS locations. 25 completed additional individual telephone interviews.- Physical activity
- Diet
- Barriers to exercise
- Self-report of healthy lifestyle
Hindman and Bustamante, 2019 [18]HS teachers (n = 362) in all 50 states and Washington, DCPaper survey of HS teachers conducted twice within the same year, once in fall and spring.- Depression (CES-D)
Jennings, 2015 [19]Teachers from both CCC and HS (n = 35) in CaliforniaWeb-based survey and follow up phone interview of 21 teachers working in privately funded independent preschools and 14 HS teachers.- Depression (BDI)
- Burnout (MBI)
- Mindfulness (FFMQ)
Jeon et al., 2018 [20]Teachers from CCC (n = 1129) in all 50 statesMailed survey of preschool classroom teachers in CCC and public pre-kindergarten programs.- Depression (CES-D)
- Stress (Perceived Stress Scale)
Jeon et al., 2019 [21]Teachers from CCC (n = 207) in a Southern state in the USAPaper survey of CCC teachers.- Depression (RAND Health)
- Job-related stress (CCW-JSI)
Ling, 2018 [22]HS teachers (n = 80) in MichiganWeb-based survey sent to each HS center supervisor to distribute to all HS teachers.- Physical Activity (IPAQ)
- Depression (RAND Health)
- Diet
- Quality of Life (SF-36)
- Self-reported height and weight
Linnan et al., 2017 [23]Teachers and administrators from CCC (n = 674) in North CarolinaWeb-based and paper surveys of 118 administrators and 556 staff from 74 CCCs in North Carolina.- Health behaviors (CHART)
- Dietary Intake (Dietary Screener Questionnaire and the Diet History Questionnaire)
- Tobacco and E-Cigarette (BRFSS)
- Sleep (PSQI)
- Depression (CES-D)
- Measured height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, and blood pressure
- Physical activity (1 week of accelerometer monitoring using a GT3X ActiGraph monitor)
Magerko, 2016 [24]FCC providers (n = 165 for survey) in IllinoisSurvey of FCC providers.- Weight status (BRFSS) for BMI
- Perceived stress (PSS-14)
- Smoking (WHO)
- Nutrition (BRFSS)
- Physical activity (GPAQ)
- Life satisfaction (BRFSS)
- Sleep (BRFSS)
- Chronic diseases (BRFSS)
- Depression (CES-D 20)
Magerko, 2016 [24]FCC providers (n = 67 for measurements) in IllinoisSurvey and measurements of FCC providers.- Measured height and weight
- Body composition
- Measured blood pressure
- Measured blood cholesterol
- Dietary intake (24-h recall)
- Physical activity (n = 28 providers; accelerometer)
- Health behaviors (BRFSS)
Ota et al., 2013 [25]Child care providers from both CCC and FCC homes (n = 39) in UtahSurvey of primary and secondary caregivers from 11 family home providers, 18 family group providers, and 10 CCC providers.- Stress (PSI-SF)
Roberts et al., 2017 [26]Teachers from CCC (n = 1640) in one Midwestern state in the USAPaper surveys of educators within 1063 schools or centers.- Work related stress (CCW-JSI)
- Depression (CESD-10)
- Health Insurance
Sandilos et al., 2015 [27]Teachers from both CCC and HS (n = 59) in Northeastern and Southeastern USAPaper survey of teachers from HS and preschool centers serving children who receive free or reduced lunch.- Depression/Emotional Health (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale)
- Stress (Job Control portion of CCW-JSI)
Sharma et al., 2013 [28]HS Teachers and teachers’ aides (n = 213) in TexasPaper survey of HS teaching staff (i.e., teachers and teachers’ aides).- Dietary behavior (semi-quantitative food recall questionnaire)
- Self-report height and weight
Snyder and Hill, 2018 [29]HS teachers and other staff (n = 312) in OhioWeb-based survey of teaching, family support, health, administrative, and support staff of the HS agency.- Stress (PSS-4)
- Mindfulness (MAAS)
- Mental Health (NHANES and BRFSS)
- Chronic conditions (NHANES)
- Smoking (BRFSS)
- General Health Status (BRFSS)
Song et al., 2016 [30]HS teachers and other staff who were aged 18 years or older
(n = 307) in Michigan
Web-based survey of teachers and other staff from 17 Michigan Migrant and Seasonal HS centers.- Self-reported height and weight
- Food security (US household food security survey module)
Swindle et al., 2018 [31]Early childhood educators (n = 307) in ArkansasSurvey completed on location or at a conference for ECE providers.- Dietary intake (FMI)
- Food insecurity (Household Food Security Survey)
Tovar et al., 2017 [32]FCC providers (n = 166) in North CarolinaPaper surveys completed by providers at on-site visits.- Physical activity (BRFSS)
- Dietary intake (Brief Block Food Frequency Questionnaire)
- Sleep (Medical Outcomes Study sleep scale)
- Stress (Perceived Stress Scale)
- Measured height and weight
Ward et al., 2018 [9]CCC directors and participating staff (n = 553) in North CarolinaA combination of an objective physical activity measure, physical measurements, web-based and paper-based surveys, and an environmental assessment.- Health behaviors (CHART)
- Smoking (BRFSS)
- Physical activity (7 days of accelerometer wear)
- Dietary intake (Dietary Screener Questionnaire and the Diet History Questionnaire)
- Sleep (Society for Behavioral Medicine’s Common Data Elements and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index)
- Depression (CESD)
Whitaker et al., 2013 [33]Female HS staff (n = 2122) in PennsylvaniaWeb-based survey of female HS program directors, managers, classroom teachers, home-based visitors, and family service workers. Staff from 66 Pennsylvania HS programs.- Depression (CES-D)
- Chronic disease diagnoses (BRFSS, NHIS)
- Health-related quality of life (NHIS and BRFSS)
Whitaker et al., 2015 [34]HS Teachers and assistant teachers (n = 1001) in PennsylvaniaWeb-based survey of teachers and assistant teachers from 37 HS programs in Pennsylvania.- Depression (CES-D)
- Financial well-being
Witherell, 2013 [35]CCC employees (n = 101) in MichiganPaper survey of CCC head or lead teachers, group leaders, assistant teachers, and aides.- Depression (CES-D; BSI)
  1. FCC family child care, CCC child care centers, HS Head Start