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Table 4 Studies included

From: Social determinants of maternal health: a scoping review of factors influencing maternal mortality and maternal health service use in India

Author(s) Title Study year Indicator(s) included Study area(s) Source(s)
Alcock et al. [61] Examining inequalities in uptake of maternal health care and choice of provider in underserved urban areas of Mumbai, India: a mixed methods study 2011–2013 Qualitative Maharashtra—Mumbai two informal settings PubMed
Allendorf [60] The quality of family relationships and use of maternal health-care services in India 2010 Institutional delivery Madhya Pradesh PubMed
Allendorf [59] Going nuclear? Family structure and young women’s Health in India, 1992-2006 2012 ANC1 India Reference check
Bhanderi and Srinivasan [23] Utilization of maternal health services and determinants of skilled care during delivery in slums of Gujarat, India 2015 Institutional delivery2 Gujarat—urban slum in Rajkot city Google Scholar
Chattopadhyay [56] Men in maternal care: evidence from India 2012 Institutional delivery India, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Maharashtra PubMed
Chauhan [47] Antenatal care among currently married women in Rajasthan, India 2012 Full ANC3 Rajasthan ScienceDirect
Das et al. [24] Prospective study of determinants and costs of home births in Mumbai slums 2010 Home delivery Mumbai—slums, six municipal wards Reference check
Dikid et al. [48] Maternal and perinatal death inquiry and response project implementation review in India 2009 Qualitative Bihar, Rajasthan, and Orissa PubMed
George A [62] Persistence of high maternal mortality in Koppal District, Karnataka, India: observed service delivery constraints 2004 Qualitative Karnataka—Koppal district ScienceDirect
Godha et al. [58] Association between child marriage and reproductive health outcomes and service utilization: a multi-country study from South Asia 2013 4 ANC, institutional delivery India (and Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan) Reference check
Goli et al. [40] Pathways of economic inequalities in maternal and child health in Urban India: a decomposition analysis 2013 < 3 ANC, not an institutional delivery India—urban Google Scholar
Hazarika [39] Women’s reproductive health in slum populations in India: evidence from NFHS-3 2009 3 ANC India—eight cities, urban slums Reference check
Iyengar et al. [30] Pregnancy related deaths in rural Rajasthan, India: exploring causes, context, and care-seeking through verbal autopsy 2002–2003 Qualitative Rajasthan—a block Reference check
Jat et al. [41] Factors affecting the use of maternal health services in Madhya Pradesh state of India: a multilevel analysis 2011 PNC4 Madhya Pradesh Google Scholar
Jat et al. [50] Socio-cultural and service delivery dimensions of maternal mortality in rural central India: a qualitative exploration using a human rights lens 2011 Qualitative Madhya Pradesh—Khargone district Reference check
Jayanthi et al. [42] Primary health centres: preferred options for birthing care in Tamil Nadu, India, from users’ perspectives 2012 Qualitative Tamil Nadu Reference check
Jeffery P and Jeffery R [31] Only when the boat has started sinking: A maternal death in rural north India 2002–2005 Qualitative Uttar Pradesh—Muslim village in rural Bijnor district ScienceDirect
Jihesh and Sundari Ravindran [32] Social and health system factors contributing to maternal deaths in a less developed district of Kerala, India 2010–2011 Qualitative Kerala—Wayanad district Google Scholar
Koski et al. [54] Physical violence by partner during pregnancy and use of prenatal care in rural India 2011 At least 3 ANC India—rural Reference check
Kumar and Mohanty 2011 Intra-urban differentials in the utilization of reproductive healthcare in India, 1992-2006 2011 ANC3 India—urban Reference check
Mahapatro [52] Equity in utilization of health care services: perspective of pregnant women in southern Odisha, India 2011–2012 Qualitative Odisha—Gajam PubMed
Mahapatro [33] Utilization of maternal and child health care services in India: does women's autonomy matter? 2012 Full ANC3 India Reference check
Nair et al. [34] What influences the decision to undergo institutional delivery by skilled birth attendants? A cohort study in rural Andhra Pradesh, India 2012 Institutional delivery5 Andhra Pradesh—rural PubMed
Pathak et al. [6] Economic inequalities in maternal health care: prenatal care and skilled birth attendance in India, 1992-2006 1992–2006 ANC6 India, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu Google Scholar
Paudel et al. [55] Determinants of postnatal maternity care service utilization in rural Belgaum of Karnataka, India: A community based cross-sectional study 2014 PNC services Karnataka—rural Belgaum Taluka Google Scholar
Prakash R & Kumar A, [49] Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India 2013 ANC7 India—urban, eight EAG11, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu Reference check
Ram and Singh [25] Is antenatal care effective in improving maternal health in rural Uttar Pradesh? Evidence from a District Level Household Survey 2006 Institutional delivery Uttar Pradesh—rural Reference check
Roy et al. [26] Determinants of utilization of antenatal care services in Rural Lucknow, India 2013 3 ANC Uttar Pradesh—Lucknow district Google Scholar
Sahoo et al. [53] Do socio-demographic factors still predict the choice of place of delivery: a cross-sectional study in rural North India 2015 Home delivery Delhi—two villages ScienceDirect
Saxena et al. [35] Inequity in maternal health care service utilization in Gujarat: analyses of district-level health survey data 2013 3 ANC, institutional delivery Gujarat PubMed
Singh et al. [27] Assessing the utilization of maternal and child health care among married adolescent women: evidence from India 2012 Full ANC3 India—adolescent PubMed
Singh et al. [28] Determinants of maternity care services utilization among married adolescents in rural India 2012 Full ANC3 India—rural, adolescent PubMed
Singh et al. [43] The consequences of unintended pregnancy for maternal and child health in rural India: evidence from prospective data 2013 Use of ANC6 Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu Reference check
Singh et al. [29] Factors associated with maternal healthcare services utilization in nine high focus states in India: a multilevel analysis based on 14 385 communities in 292 districts 2013 4 ANC, PNC8 9 states PubMed
Singh et al. [44] Utilization of maternal health care among adolescent mothers in urban India: evidence from DLHS-3 2014 Full ANC3, PNC9 India—urban, adolescent Reference check
Singh et al. [45] Factors influencing antenatal care services utilization in Empowered Action Group (EAG) States, India: a spatial and multilevel analysis 2015 Full ANC3 India—eight EAG states Google Scholar
Subha Sri et al. [27] An investigation of maternal deaths following public protests in a tribal district of Madhya Pradesh, central India 2010 Qualitative Madhya Pradesh—Barwani district ScienceDirect
Tey and Lai [36] Correlates of barriers to the utilization of health services for delivery in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa 2013 Institutional delivery10 India—and Bangladesh, Pakistan, Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania Reference check
Viegas Andrade et al. [38] Antenatal care use in Brazil and India: scale, outreach and socioeconomic inequality 2012 > 4 ANC India PubMed, ScienceDirect
Vijayshree et al. [63] “She was referred from one hospital to another”: evidence on emergency obstetric care in Karnataka, India 2011 Qualitative Karnataka Reference check
Yadav and Kesarwani [46] Effect of individual and community factors on maternal health care service use in India: a multilevel approach 2015 Full ANC3, PNC4 India Google Scholar
  1. 1> 3 ANC visits, beginning in the first trimester of pregnancy
  2. 2Referred to as skilled delivery care in this study
  3. 3At least 3 ANC, at least 2 TT during pregnancy or 1 TT during pregnancy, and 1 during 3 years prior to the pregnancy received iron and folic acid tablets for at least 90 days
  4. 4At least one check-up by health professionals within 2 weeks of delivery
  5. 5Referred to as institutional delivery conducted by SBA in this study
  6. 6ANC visit in the first trimester and > 4 ANC visits
  7. 7> 3 ANC, at least two TT, and had received IFA
  8. 8Within 2 days after delivery
  9. 9Within 42 days after delivery
  10. 10Referred to as using health facility for delivery in this study
  11. 11Enabled Action Group