- Open Access
Public Health Education in India and China:History, Opportunities, and Challenges
Public Health Reviews volume 33, pages204–224(2011)
Public health education in China and India has a long history that has been both deeply responsive to the unique needs and medical traditions of each country, and sensitive to global influences. The history of public health education in China reaches back several centuries, with substantial input from American and European organizations during the Republican Era, 1911–1949. In India, centuries-old health care traditions were influenced during the colonial period by the British Empire prior to independence in 1947. Political upheaval in both countries during the 1940s further impacted the public health systems as well as public health education.
The primary goal of this review is to outline public health education in India and Mainland China, with a focus on describing the historical systems and structures that have promoted the development of formalized public health education. We examine current challenges, and analyze opportunities for improvement. Health reforms in China and India need to consider new and modern models for public health education, perhaps in independent faculties of public health, to reinvigorate public health education and strengthen the position of public health in addressing the health challenges of the 21st century.
Veith I. The yellow emperor’s classic of internal medicine. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press; 2002.
Wong KC, Wu L-t. History of Chinese medicine; being a chronicle of medical happenings in China from ancient times to the present period. 2nd ed. New York, NY: AMS Press; 1973.
Benedict C. Policing the sick: plague and the origins of state medicine in late imperial China. Late Imperial China. 1993;14:63.
Yip KC. Health and national reconstruction in nationalist China: The Development of Modern Health Services, 1928–1937. Ann Arbor, MI: The Association of Asian Studies; 1995.
Bu L. Starting a public health education movement in China: “The Council on Health Education,” 1915–1926. Launching Chinese public health. Johns Hopkins University; 2008.
Fee E, Bu L. Models of public health education: choices for the future? Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:977–9.
Bu L, Fee E. John B. Grant international statesman of public health. Am J Public Health. 2008;98:628–9.
Cohen MS, Henderson GE, Aiello P, Zheng H. Successful eradication of sexually transmitted diseases in the People’s Republic of China: implications for the 21st century. J Infect Dis. 1996;174:S223–9.
Zhang D, Unschuld PU. China’s barefoot doctor: past, present, and future. Lancet. 2008;372:1865–7.
Lampton DM. The politics of medicine in China: the policy process, 1949–1977. Boulder, CO: Westview Press; 1977.
World Bank World Development Report, Table 3.1 Global Health Expenditure; 1993.
Hsiao W. The Chinese health care system: lessons for other nations. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41:1047.
Hesketh T, Zhu WX. Health care in China: maternal and child health in China. BMJ. 1997;314:1898–9.
Griffiths SM. Leading a healthy lifestyle: the challenges for China. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2010;22:110S.
Liu Y. China’s public health-care system: facing the challenges. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:532–8.
Wang H, Wang N, Bi A, Wang G, Ding G, Jia M, et al. Application of cumulative odds logistic model on risk factors analysis for sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Kaiyuan City, Yunnan Province, China. Sex Transm Infect. 2009;85:290–5.
Lin CC, Gao X, Chen XS, Chen Q, Cohen MS. China’s syphilis epidemic: a systematic review of seroprevalence studies. Sex Transm Dis. 2006;33:726–36.
Griffiths SM, Li LM, Tang JL, Ma X, Hu YH, Meng QY, et al. The challenges of public health education with a particular reference to China. Public Health. 2010;124:218–24.
Zhu MJ, Jin MJ, Chen K. Discussion of public health system and public health education. Zhejiang Prev Med. 2004;16:60e1.
Wei B, Lu L, Zhang ZY, Ma ZY. Bridging the gap between education and practice in public health, with particular reference to less-developed provinces in China. Public Health. 2011;125:25–9.
Li LM. The Current State of Public Health in China. Annu Rev Public Health. 2004;25:327–39.
CCDC. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention brief introduction. Beijing; 2003.
APACPH. Asia Pacific Academic Consorium for Public Health. 2010. Available from URL: http://www.apacph.org/index.html (Accessed 20 September, 2011).
Zhang D, Mou J, Cheng JQ, Griffiths SM. Public health service in Shenzhen: a case study. Public Health. 2011;125:15–9.
Li LM, Tang JL, Lu L, Jiang Y, Griffiths SM. The need for integration in health sciences sets the future direction for public health education. Public Health. 2011;125:20–4.
Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and State Council. Guidelines on deepening the reform of the healthcare system. Beijing: Central Chinese Government; 2009.
Liang KY, Zeger SL. Regression analysis for correlated data. Annu Rev Public Health. 1993;14:43–68.
Datta KK. Public health workforce in India: career pathways for public health personnel. New Delhi; 2009.
All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health. Available from URL: http://www.aiihph.gov.in/html/about_us.htm (Accessed 18 November, 2010).
NIHFW. Committee and Commission. Available from URL: http://nihfw.org/NDC/DocumentationServices/Committe_and_commission.html (Accessed 18 November, 2010).
Thakur HP, DD Pandit, Subramanian P. History of preventive and social medicine in India. J Postgrad Med. 2001; 47(4): 283–5.
Health services and medical education: A programme for immediate action (Shrivastav Committee Report). 1975.
Poulose KP, Natarajan PK. Re-orientation of medical education in India: past, present and future. Indian J Public Health. 1989;33:55–8.
Sathe P, Sathe A. Epidemiology and Management For Health Care For All, 1st ed. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd.; 1991.
Expert review committee for health manpower planning, production and management (Bajaj Committee). 1986. Available from URL: http://nihfw.org/NDC/DocumentationServices/Reports/Bajajai]20Committeeai]20report.pdf (Accessed 18 November, 2010).
Expert Committee on Public Health Systems. 1996. Available from URL: http://nrhm-mis.nic.in/ui/who/PDF/Expert Committee on PH System JS Bajaj 1996.pdf (Accessed 6 December, 2010).
Voluntary Health Association of India. Report of the Independent Commission on Health in India. New Delhi: VHAI; 1997.
(No author). Regional Conference on Public Health in South East Asia in the 21st Century, Calcutta, 22–24 November 1999: “Calcutta Declaration on Public Health”. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000;54:749.
World Health Organization. Working together for health: The World Health Report. Geneva; WHO: 2006.
Medical Council of India. Available from URL: http://www.mciindia.org/ (Accessed 18 November, 2010).
Garg BS. Accreditation of public health courses in India–the challenge ahead. Indian J Community Med. 2004;29:52.
Zodpey SP, Negandhi H, Tiwari RR. Mapping ‘Occupational Health’ courses in India: a systematic review. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2009;13:135–40.
Sharma K, Zodpey S. Need and opportunities for health management education in India. Indian J Public Health. 2010;54:84–91.
Recommended Citation: Bangdiwala SI, Tucker JD, Zodpey SM, Griffiths S, Li L-M, Reddy KS, Cohen MS, Gross M, Sharma K, Tang J-L. Public Health Education in India and China: History, Opportunities, and Challenges. Public Health Reviews. 2011;33:204–24.
About this article
Cite this article
Bangdiwala, S.I., Tucker, J.D., Zodpey, S. et al. Public Health Education in India and China:History, Opportunities, and Challenges. Public Health Rev 33, 204–224 (2011) doi:10.1007/BF03391628
- public health
- capacity building