- Open Access
Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Mortality in Russia: Challenges and Barriers
Public Health Reviews volume 33, pages 436–449 (2011)
The article discusses the issue of the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and extremely high mortality rates from cardiovascular disease, especially among people of working ages, in Russia. It justifies the need to reduce excess mortality. Further, it analyzes the trends, structure and the burden of cardiovascular diseases, demonstrates prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors (psychosocial factors, alcohol abuse, smoking, eating habits, arterial hypertension, low physical activity, obesity, and dyslipidemy) in the Russian population. The measures required to control high mortality from cardiovascular disease and existing barriers in Russia are addressed. A conclusion is made that the lessons learned in western countries over the past 50 years need to be applied in Russia.
Demoscope Weekly. 6–19 June, 2011:469–70. Available from URL: http://demoscope.ru/weekly/2011/0469/barom04.php (Accessed 23 September, 2011).
Kharchenko VI, Kakorina YeP, Koryakin MV, Virin MM, Udrintsov VM, Smirnova NL, et al. Mortality from circulatory diseases in Russia and in developed countries. The need to strengthen the cardiological service and modernize of medical statistics in the Russian Federation (Analytical review of official data of Goskomstat, Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia, WHO and expert analysis on the issue). Rossiyskiy Kardiologicheskiy Zhurnal. 2005;2:2–10.
Tulchinsky TH, Varavikova EA. The New Public Health: an introduction for the 21st century. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2008.
World Health Organization. Health for All Data Base. WHO European Region. July 2011. Available from URL: http://www.euro.who.int/HFADB (Updated July, 2011 and accessed 21 September, 2011).
Oganov RG, Maslennikova GYa. Noncommunicable diseases in Russia, the role of risk factors. In: Glazunov IS, Stachenko S, editors. Health promotion and prevention of noncommunicable disease in Russia and Canada. Experience and recommendations. Public Health Agency of Canada; 2006. p.3–18.
World Bank. Reforming the health care system of the Russian Federation with a view to improving the health of the population: The main objectives for 2008 and beyond. World Bank. Region: Europe and Central Asia. Department of Social Programs. Country: Russian Federation.
Kalabekov IG. Russian reforms in fgures and facts. 2010. Available from URL: http://kaivg.narod.ru (Updated November, 2010 and accessed 21 September, 2011).
Marquez PV. Dying too young. Addressing premature mortality and ill health due to non-communicable diseases and injuries in the Russian Federation (Summary). Washington, DC: World Bank; 2005.
Federal State Statistic Service. The Demographic Yearbook of Russia. Statistical Handbook. Moscow: Federal State Statistic Service (Rosstat); 2010.
Oganov RG, Kontsevaya AV, Kalinina AM. Economic burden of cardiovascular disease in the Russian Federation. Kardiovasculyarnaya Terapiya I Proflaktika. 2011;10:4–19.
Oganov RG, Maslennikova GYa, Shalnova SA, Deev AD. The value of risk factors management for the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor. 2005;5:22–5.
Shalnova SA, Deev AD, Oganov RG. Factors influencing the mortality from cardiovascular disease in Russian population. Kardiovasculyarnaya Terapiya I Proflaktika. 2005;4:4–9.
Rodionov AA, Petrukhin IS. Physical activity of workers of a large industrial enterprise and its correction. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor 2008;4:42–6.
Brainerd E, Cutler DM. Autopsy on an Empire: Understanding Mortality in Russia and the Former Soviet Union. NBER Working paper 10868, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA; 2004. Available from URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w10868 (Accessed 10 September, 2011).
Aarva P, Zhukovsky GS, Marsimova TM, Martynchik EA, Oganov RG. Social inequality in the health level of the population: self-appraisal in one-stage study in the Vologda region. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor. 2000;3:3–9.
Plavinsky SL, Plavinskaya SI, Klimov AN. Social factors and increases in mortality in Russia in the 1990s: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2003;326:1240–2.
Federal State Statistics Service. NOBUS (National Survey of Household Welfare and Program Participation). Moscow: Federal State Statistics Service; 2003.
Nemtsov AV, Terekin AT. Alcohol-associated cardiovascular mortality in Russia. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor. 2008;2:23–30.
World Health Organization. WHO Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2011. Geneva: WHO; 2011. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/msbgsreur.pdf (Accessed 21 September, 2011).
Carolina Population Center. The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey–Higher School of Economics. University of North Carolina. Available from URL: http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/rlms-hse (Accessed 10 September, 2011).
Potemkina RA, Glazunov IS, Kuznetsova OYu, Petrukhin IS, Frolova YeV, Kudina YeA, et al. Examination of the spread of behavioral risk factors among the population of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Tver by telephone questioning. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor 2005;3:3–15.
Laatikainen T, Alho H, Vartianinen E, Jousilahti P, Sillanaukee P, Puska P. Self-reported alcohol consumption and association to carbohydrate-deficient transferring and gamma-glutamyltransferase in a random sample of the general population in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and in North Karelia, Finland. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2002;37:382–8.
Treisman D. Alcohol and Early Death in Russia: The political economy of self-destructive drinking. Moscow: Moscow State University–Higher School of Economics; 2008.
Nemtsov AV. Alcohol-attributed mortality in Russia, 1980–1990s. Moscow; 2001.
Shalnova SA. Cardiovascular risk factors and life expectancy of the population of Russia (the results of the research on a national representative sample): Thesis. Moscow; 1999.
Maslennikova GYa, Oganov RG. Impact of smoking on health of population in Russia and Europe. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor 2002;6:17–20, 29.
Cunningham R. Smoke and Mirrors. The Canadian Tobacco War. Ottawa: IDRC Books; 1996.
Gilmore AB, McKee M. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union. Tob Control. 2004;13:136–42.
Baturin AK. Development of an evaluation system and characteristics of food intake and nutrition status in Russia: Thesis. Moscow; 1998.
Popovich MV, Glazunov IS, Potemkina RA, Kamardina TV, Deev AD, Starovoitov ML, et al. Consumption of fruit and vegetables in Moscow, Murmansk and Arkhangelsk. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor. 2002;6:30–3.
Platonov DYu, Petrukhin IS, Volkov VS. Some dietary habits in the adult population of the tver Region and their association with demographic and socioeconomic factors. Proflac Zabol Ukrep Zdor 2007;1:28–36.
Puska P, Tuomilehto J, Nissenen A, Vartiainen E. The North Karelia Project. 20 years results and experiences. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press; 1995.
Wolf-Maier K, Cooper RS, Banegas JR, Giampaoli S, Hense HW, Joffres M, et al. Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States. JAMA. 2003;289:2363–9.
Laatikainen T. Cardiovascular Risk in the Republic of Karelia, Russia: Comparison of Major Risk Factors with North Karelia, Finland. Thesis. Helsinki: National Public Health Institute; 2000.
Oganov RG, Shalnova SA, Maslennikova GYa, Deev AD. The role of healthy lifestyle strategies for public health protection. Ross Med Vesti. 2001;3:34–7.
Sjostrom M. Health-enhancing physical activity across European Union countries: the Eurobarometer study. J Public Health. 2006;14:1–10.
Zabina E, Muravov O. Experience in validation and use of CINDI physical activity questionnaire. - Copenhagen: World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe; 1995.
Rodionov AA. Prevention of low physical activity and psychological dysadaptation as risk factors of cardiovascular diseases among workers of an industrial plant. Thesis. Tver; 2009.
World Health Organization. The world health report. Life in the 21st century: A vision for all. Geneva: WHO; 1998.
WHO MONICA Project. Geographical variation in the major risk factors of coronary heart disease in men and in women aged 35-64 years. World Health Stat Q. 41:115–40.
Plavinsky SL, Plavinskaya SI, Klimov AN. Social factors and mortality increase in Russia in 1990s. The role of education and alcohol. In: Population’s health. Collection of scientific and practical articles. Moscow: Open Health Institute; 2005. p.98–110.
Glasunov IS. CINDI–Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme. In: Glazunov IS, Stachenko S, editors. Health promotion and prevention of noncommunicable disease in Russia and Canada. Experience and recommendations. Public Health Agency of Canada; 2006. p.30–4.
Morgenstern W, Tsechkovski MS, Nussel E, Schettler G. Baseline Evaluation. CINDI. WHO/EURO and Springer-Verlag; 1991.
Popugaev AI, Kalinina AM, Shalnova SA, Deev AD, Kontsevaya AV, Nechaev VS, et al. The epidemiological situation with regard to major risk factors and total cardiovascular risk in the population of Vologda 35–64 years of age. Kardiovasculyarnaya Terapiya I Proflaktika. 2008;7:13–9.
Britov AN, Sapozhnikov II, Konstantinov EN. The control of arterial hypertension in the population. In: Preventive Cardiology. Chazov EI, Oganov RG, editors. Moscow: International Universities Press, Inc; 1989. p.149–86.
Kalinina AM. Influence of multifactorial prevention of coronary hearth disease on some indicators of health and life prognosis (10-years follow-up). Thesis. Moscow; 1993.
Alexandrov AA, Maslennikova GYa, Kulikov SM, Propirnij GA, Perova NV. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: 3-year intervention results in boys of 12 years of age. Prev Med 1992;21:53–62.
Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation. Strategy for prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in the Russian Federation. Moscow: Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation. State Research Center for Preventive Medicine; 2008.
Vyalkov AI. Policy and strategy of diseases prevention and health promotion in contemporary society. Obsch Zdor Prof Zab. 2003;1:3–7.
About this article
Cite this article
Petrukhin, I.S., Lunina, E.Y. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Mortality in Russia: Challenges and Barriers. Public Health Rev 33, 436–449 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03391645
- cardiovascular diseases