Skip to main content

Advertisement

A Game Change in Global Health: The Best Is Yet to Come

Article metrics

Abstract

Health will continue to gather strength as a global public domain if it links itself strategically with other transnational agendas and strengthens its political ability to produce global public goods for health. Three new political spaces offer opportunities to take the global health agenda a significant step forward: the emerging new development paradigm, the post-2015 debates at the United Nations and the dynamics created through the increasing trans-border health challenges the World Health Organization (WHO) must deal with under conditions of globalization. Presently there are concerns whether the major initiatives that have boosted global health in the last 20 years will continue to grow and attract sufficient funding. But the more pertinent question is whether they are still suited to address the major concerns global health faces between now and 2030. In addition many of the global health challenges can only be addressed through actions in sectors other than health and by facing the inherently political nature of health as well as strong opposition from parts of the private sector. A well-financed and rules based governance system — adapted to complex multilateralism — is needed to manage, complement and integrate the many issue-based initiatives. The next era of global health will be judged by its political capacity to ensure global health security, build universal health coverage, address the commercial determinants of non-communicable diseases and reduce global health inequalities. This will require a focus on producing global public goods for health (GPGH) through strong international organizations, in particular the WHO, supported by governments who have the political will and the institutional capacity to practice smart sovereignty, reach beyond the heath sector and engage with non-state actors.

References

  1. 1.

    Sumner A, Mallett R. The Future of Foreign Aid: Development Cooperation and the New Geography of Global Poverty. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.

  2. 2.

    Drager N, Abbott F. The ‘PIP’ (Pandemic Influenza Preparedness) Framework: Smart sovereignty to improve the sharing of influenza viruses with pandemic potential, while also moving towards more predictable and equitable access to vaccines in future pandemics vaccines in future pandemics. Annex 2. In: Kaul I (editor). Global public goods: a concept for framing the post-2015 agenda? Discussion paper. Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik; February 2013. pp.43–45. Available from URL: http://www.die-gdi.de/CMS-Homepage/openwebcms3.nsf/%28ynDK_contentByKey%29/ANES-959D4N/$FILE/DP%202.2013.pdf (Accessed 13 April 2013).

  3. 3.

    Ruggie JG. Just Business: Multinational Corporations and Human Rights. First edition. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company; 2013.

  4. 4.

    World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. Health in foreign policy and development cooperation: public health is global health. Regional Committee for Europe, Sixtieth Session, Moscow, 13–16 September 2010. WHO/Europe; 2010. Available from URL: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/119542/RC60_edoc14.pdf (Accessed 13 April 2013).

  5. 5.

    Kickbusch I. Global Health Governance: some new theoretical considerations on the new political space. In: Lee K (editor) Globalization and Health. London: Palgrave; 2003. pp.192–203.

  6. 6.

    World Health Organization. Sixty-sixth World Health Assembly: daily notes on proceedings. WHO; 27 May 2013. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/events/2013/wha66/journal/en/index.html (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  7. 7.

    Ruggie JG. Reconstituting the Global Public Domain: Issues, Actors, and Practices. Eur J Int Relations. 2004;10:499–531.

  8. 8.

    Fidler DP. After the revolution: global health politics in a time of economic crisis and threatening future trends. Global Health Governance. 2008;2:1–21. Available from URL: http://www.ghgj.org (Accessed 12 April 2013).

  9. 9.

    Morrison JS. The end of the golden era of global health? Center for Strategic and International Studies; 17 April 2012. Available from URL: http://csis.org/publication/end-golden-era-global-health (Accessed 10 April 2013).

  10. 10.

    Garrett L. Blog series on global health. 2013. http://lauriegarrett.com/blog/ (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  11. 11.

    Andriote J-M. An optimistic era for global infectious disease control. The Atlantic; 13 February 2013. Available from URL: http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/02/an-optimistic-era-for-global-infectious-disease-control/273041/ (Accessed 11 April 2013).

  12. 12.

    Greenhill R, Prizzon A, Rogerson A. The age of choice: developing countries in the new aid landscape. A synthesis report. ODI Working Papers 364; January 2013. Available from URL: http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/7163-age-choice-developing-countries-new-aid-landscape (Accessed 11 April 2013).

  13. 13.

    UNAIDS. Together we will end AIDS. Geneva, Switzerland: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS); 2012.

  14. 14.

    Regional Network for Equity in Health in East and Southern Africa (EQUINET). Expansion of the private for-profit health sector in East and Southern Africa. Policy Series No. 26; November 2011. Available from URL: http://www.equinetafrica.org/bibl/docs/Pol26%20brief%20privatefin.pdf (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  15. 15.

    Carothers T, de Gramont D. Development Aid Confronts Politics: The Almost Revolution. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment For International Peace; 2013.

  16. 16.

    Ogden T. Living with the Gates Foundation: a retrospective: A summary of articles and discussions about the Gates Foundation’s impact on global social change. Stanford Social Innovation Blog; 20 December 2011. Available from URL: http://www.ssireview.org/blog/entry/living_with_the_gates_foundationa_retrospective (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  17. 17.

    Kazatchkine M. How AIDS changed global health forever. Comment in: The Sydney Morning Herald; 22 May 2013. Available from URL: http://www.smh.com.au/comment/how-aids-changed-global-health-forever-20130521-2jyu7.html (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  18. 18.

    Kickbusch I. The need for a European strategy on global health. Scand J Public Health. 2006;34:561–5.

  19. 19.

    People’s Health Movement. The People’s Charter for Health. People’s Health Movement; 10 April 2013. Available from URL: http://www.phmovement.org/en/resources/charters/peopleshealth (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  20. 20.

    Karanikolos M, Mladovsky P, Cylus J, Thomson S, Basu S, et al. Financial crisis, austerity, and health in Europe. Lancet. 2013;381:1323–31.

  21. 21.

    Moodie R, Stuckler D, Monteiro C, Sheron N, Neal B, et al. Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Lancet. 2013;381:670–9.

  22. 22.

    Held D. Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press; 1999.

  23. 23.

    Sassen S. A Sociology of Globalization. 1st edition. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company; 2007.

  24. 24.

    Ferroni M, Moody A (editors). International Public Goods: Incentives, Measurement and Financing. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 2002.

  25. 25.

    The Lancet. Australia’s plain tobacco packaging. Lancet. 2012;380:704.

  26. 26.

    World Economic Forum. Global Risks 2013: Eighth Edition. An initiative of the risk response network. World Economic Forum; 2013. Available from URL: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalRisks_Report_2013.pdf (Accessed 13 April 2013).

  27. 27.

    Kaul I. Global public goods: a concept for framing the post-2015 agenda? Discussion Paper. Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik; February 2013. Available from URL: http://www.die-gdi.de/CMS-Homepage/openwebcms3.nsf/%28ynDK_contentByKey%29/ANES-959D4N/$FILE/DP%202.2013.pdf (Accessed 13 April 2013).

  28. 28.

    English.news.cn. China gains international recognition for immediate, effective responses to H7N9. 22 May 2013. Available from URL: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/health/2013-05/22/c_132399851_2.htm (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  29. 29.

    University of Maryland. How and why to price carbon: a price commitment is neither a cap nor a tax. Available from URL: http://www.cramton.umd.edu/climate/ (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  30. 30.

    Shafik N. The future of development finance. Working Paper 250. Center for Global Development; May 2011. Available from URL: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/file_Shafik_Future_of_Finance_Dev_FINAL.pdf (Accessed 13 April 2013).

  31. 31.

    United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2013. The rise of the South: human progress in a diverse world. UNDP; 2013. Available from URL: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2013/ (Accessed 12 April 2013).

  32. 32.

    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME). Financing global health 2010: development assistance and country spending in economic uncertainty. IHME; 2010. Available from URL: http://www.healthmetricsandevaluation.org/publications/policy-report/financing_global_health_2010_IHME (Accessed 25 June 2013).

  33. 33.

    OECD. Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness. OECD; 2010. Available from URL: http://www.oecd.org/dac/effectiveness/fourthhighlevelforumonaideffectiveness.htm (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  34. 34.

    United Nations. High-Level Panel Report on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. 2013. Available from URL: http://www.post2015hlp.org/ (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  35. 35.

    United Nations. The future we want: Rio+20 Outcome Document. Available from URL: http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/rio20_outcome_document_complete.pdf (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  36. 36.

    Griggs D, Stafford-Smith M, Gaffney O, Rockström J, Ohman MC, et al. Policy: sustainable development goals for people and planet. Nature. 2013;495:305–7.

  37. 37.

    Kickbusch I, Brindley C. Post-2015 development agenda: food security and health. 2013.

  38. 38.

    United Nations. A new global partnership: eradicate poverty and transform economies through sustainable development. United Nations; 2013. The Report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. Available from URL: http://www.post2015hlp.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/UN-Report.pdf (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  39. 39.

    The NCD Alliance. Healthy planet, healthy people: The NCD Alliance vision for health in the post-2015 development agenda. The NCD Alliance; 2013. Available from URL: http://ncdalliance.org/sites/default/files/rfiles/NCD%20Alliance%20Policy%20Brief%20-%20Health%20in%20the%20Post-2015%20Development%20Agenda_%20%28US,%20web%29.pdf (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  40. 40.

    Low-Beer D. Innovative Health Partnerships: The Diplomacy of Diversity. Global Health Diplomacy, Volume 1. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company; 2011.

  41. 41.

    Altinay H. Global norms as global public goods. Global Policy Essay; April 2013. Available from URL: http://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/sites/default/files/pdf/Altinay%20-%20Global%20Norms%20as%20Global%20Public%20Goods%2004.13.pdf (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  42. 42.

    Beck U. Power in the Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press; 2005.

  43. 43.

    Bäckstrand K. Accountability of networked climate governance: the rise of transnational climate partnerships. Global Environmental Politics. 2008;8:74–102.

  44. 44.

    Kickbusch I, Kökény M. Global health diplomacy: five years on. Bull World Health Organ. 2013;91:159–159A. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/91/3/13-118596/en/ (Accessed 17 April 2013).

  45. 45.

    Khanna P. How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance. New York, NY: Random House; 2011.

  46. 46.

    Keohane RO. Global governance and democratic accountability. Duke University; 2002. Available from URL: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan034133.pdf (Accessed 12 April 2013).

  47. 47.

    Silberschmidt G, Matheson D, Kickbusch I. Creating a committee C of the World Health Assembly. Lancet. 2008;371:1483–6.

  48. 48.

    High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing of Health Systems. More money for health, and more health for the money. 2010. Available from URL: http://www.internationalhealthpartnership.net/fileadmin/uploads/ihp/Documents/Results___Evidence/HAE__results___lessons/Taskforce_report_EN.2009.pdf (Accessed 7 June 2013).

  49. 49.

    World Health Organization. Factsheet on funding and research mechanisms. Background document provided by the WHO Secretariat; 14 November 2012. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/phi/2-funding_mechanism_factsheets_6nov12.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2013).

  50. 50.

    Kahler M. Global Governance Redefined. Paper presented at the Conference on Globalization, the State, and Society, Washington University School of Law, St. Louis; 13–14 November 2003. Available from URL: http://law.wustl.edu/centeris/Papers/globalization/KAHLERMilesFINALPAPER.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2013).

  51. 51.

    Kanth P, Gleicher D, Guo Y. National strategies for global health. Chapter 20. In: Kickbusch I, Lister G, Told M, Drager N (editors). Global Health Diplomacy: Concepts, Issues, Actors, Instruments, Fora And Cases. New York, NY: Springer; 2013. pp.285–304.

  52. 52.

    Kickbusch I. Decentralization and WHO reform: a broader perspective. Global Health Programme Working Paper N°8; 2013. Available from URL: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/184631/DECENTRALIZATION-AND-WHO-REFORM,-A-BROADER-PERSPECTIVE.pdf (Accessed 17 April 2013).

  53. 53.

    Sachs JD. Macroeconomics and health: investing in health for economic development. Report of the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Ilona Kickbusch PhD.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Key Words

  • Global health
  • global public goods for health
  • new development paradigm
  • smart sovereignty