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Table 3 Evaluation of functioning of the tutorial group and tutor functioning: descriptive statistics and results of Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney tests for different locations

From: Is blended learning and problem-based learning course design suited to develop future public health leaders? An explorative European study

  M (SD) Maastricht M (SD) Kaunas M (SD) Graz KW MW Maastricht-Kaunas MW Graz-Maastricht MW Graz-Kaunas
Scales     H (p) U (p) U (p) U (p)
Functioning of tutorial group
Elaboration 3.44 (0.68) 3.70 (0.45) 4.58 (0.66) 6.61 (.03)    
Interaction 3.00 (0.59) 3.47 (0.38) 4.39 (0.53) 11.34 (.0005) 10.50 (.17) 1.00 (.0013) 2.00 (.02)
Motivation 3.31 (0.88) 2.90 (1.19) 4.50 (0.55) 7.67 (.01)    
Sponging 2.75 (0.76) 3.50 (0.71) 1.58 (0.66) 10.90 (.001) 9.50 (.13) 5.50 (.0097) .00 (.0043)
Cohesion_item 1 4.38 (0.52) 3.80 (0.45) 4.50 (0.84) 3.94 (.14)    
Cohesion_item 2 3.25 (1.28) 3.40 (1.34) 2.67 (1.63) 0.86 (.68)    
Withdrawing_item 1 4.00 (1.07) 4.20 (0.84) 2.50 (1.05) 6.70 (.03)    
Withdrawing_item 2 2.63 (0.74) 2.80 (0.45) 1.50 (0.55) 9.31 (.0047) 18.50 (.84) 6.00 (.02) 1.50 (.0087)
Tutor functioning
Stimulating constructive/active learning 3.38 (1.16) 3.47 (0.56) 4.50 (0.41) 7.50 (.02)    
Stimulating self-directed learning 3.13 (1.16) 3.40 (0.65) 3.92 (0.74) 1.86 (.41)    
Stimulating contextual learning 3.00 (0.80) 3.10 (0.82) 4.33 (0.52) 8.92 (.0064) 18.50 (.84) 4.00 (.0073) 2.00 (.01)
Stimulating collaborative learning 2.31 (1.16) 3.40 (0.65) 3.92 (0.80) 6.93 (.02)    
Motivation of the tutor 3.38 (0.74) 3.40 (0.55) 4.50 (0.84) 6.28 (.04)    
Stimulating professional behavior 2.63 (0.92) 3.20 (0.84) 4.33 (0.82) 8.28 (.00832) 13.00 (.36) 4.00 (.0087) 5.00 (.07)