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Table 1 Ten essential public health operations (EPHOs)

From: Developing the public health workforce: training and recognizing specialists in public health from backgrounds other than medicine: experience in the UK

1. Surveillance of population health and well-being  
2. Monitoring and response to health hazards and emergencies  
3. Health protection including environmental, occupational, food safety and others  
4. Health promotion including action to address social determinants and health inequity  
5. Disease prevention, including early detection of illness  
6. Assuring governance for health and well-being  
7. Assuring a sufficient and competent public health workforce  
8. Assuring sustainable organizational structures and financing  
9. Advocacy, communication, and social mobilization for health  
10. Advancing public health research to inform policy and practice  
  1. Source: WHO Regional Office for Europe. European Action Plan for Strengthening Public Health Capacities and Services. Copenhagen: WHO; 2012