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Table 3 Characteristics of interventions and results of included studies

From: Community-based interventions to increase dairy intake in healthy populations: a systematic review

Author, year   Intervention Results (increase dairy intake significantly)
Description (type) Type of intervention Only dairy intake OR Mix Duration (Week) Frequency—every Dietary assessment method  
Kimura, et al. 2013[33] Participants in the intervention group participated in the Sumida TAKE10! Program. It consisted of a general lecture by a researcher on the importance of dietary variety and 5 educational sessions. Educational Mix 12 2 weeks FFQ Yes
Duncanson, et al. 2013[34] The intervention involved dissemination of the Tummy Rumbles interactive CD and the Raising Children DVD at baseline in September 2009, accompanied by written instructions for optimal use. The Tummy Rumbles interactive nutrition education CD is a self-directed resource that was adapted from an early childhood nutrition education program for child care staff and parents. The resource is divided into modules that include the 5 food groups, dietary fats, fussy eaters, healthy lunchbox ideas, food budgeting, and reading food labels. Educational Mix 48 Australian Toddler Eating Survey (ATES)—FFQ No
McCarthy, et al. 2007[35] “Fitness” intervention group participants received instruction on skills training in a balanced regular exercise regimen (muscle strengthening, flexibility enhancement and aerobic conditioning), and nutrition education promoting a low-fat, complex carbohydrate-rich diet, emphasizing the cancer-preventive benefits of increased fruit, and vegetable intake. Educational Mix 8 Week The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Habits and History Questionnaire (Block Food Frequency instrument–NCI version 02.1) No
Casazza, et al. 2006[36] A computer-based intervention (CBI) program using an interactive, animated CD-ROM aimed at changing in eating behavior and physical activity patterns among high school students. Education programs had an emphasis on healthy lifestyle habits (diet and physical activity). Educational Mix 24 2 weeks 24-h recall Yes
DeBar, et al. 2006[37] Behavioral intervention (bimonthly group meetings, quarterly coaching telephone calls, and weekly self-monitoring) designed to improve diet and increase physical activity. Educational Mix 96 1 week 24-h recall Yes
DeBar, et al. 2009[38] Participants were urged to consume 1350 mg/day of calcium (four glasses of milk a day or the equivalent) and eight servings of fruits and vegetables, as well as to participate in exercise. Participants were encouraged to use the study website at least once a week for the duration of the 2-year study. Educational Mix 96 1 week 24-h recall Yes
Dawson, 2006[39] The intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory, consisted of five consecutive nutrition education lessons about requirements, food sources, and health benefits of dairy. Educational Dairy 5 1 week The Dairy Self-Efficacy Scale Yes
Gates, et al. (1) 2013[40] School nutrition program including policy, education, food provision, and family and community involvement. An informative handout for parents was given to students (influencing the home environment and role models, and influencing self-efficacy). Healthy breakfast and snacks were provided (including vegetables or fruit, whole grains, protein sources, and milk or milk alternatives). Multiple Dairy 5 Day A 24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire No
Gates, et al. (2) 2013[41] Supplementary milk and alternatives program for snack. Providing Dairy 48 1 day A 24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire Yes
Lo, et al. 2008[42] The intervention was also developed taking into account constructivist theory of learning. The modules aimed to enhance knowledge and understanding about the importance of variety, balanced, and moderation in making wise beverage choices (fruit juice 100%, milk, and water) instead of sugary drinks. Educational Dairy 6 Weeks Beverage frequency questionnaire No
Naghashpour, et al. 2014[43] Nutrition education program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). A lesson plan of nutrition education was structured. Educational Mix 8 Week Food frequency questionnaire Yes
Olson, et al. 2008[44] Healthy teens utilized a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based screener that provided the clinician with information about a teen’s health risks and motivation to change. Educational Mix 24 Week Study-specific questionnaire Yes
O’Connell, 2005[45] Intervention components included: (1) nutrition education through curriculum, school dinners, and mailing information to families and (2) changes to cafeteria environments to increase the availability and awareness of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. Educational Mix 23 Day FFQ No
Singhal, et al. 2010[46] Multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle education. The multi-component model included seven components of nutrition and lifestyle education aimed for changing the knowledge, behavior, and risk profile. Educational Mix 24 Day Study-specific questionnaire Yes
Watson, et al. 2009[47] Students in the intervention group completed 18-week nutrition-related courses. The major topics for nutrition and food science include influences on eating patterns and habits; processes of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of food; major nutrients and their functions; U.S. dietary guidelines; recommended dietary allowances; diet, disease, and weight control; planning nutritious and appealing meals; proper table service and manners; food labels and consumerism; cooking and food preparation terms; measuring and cooking equipment; proper food storage; laboratory experience in preparing foods. Educational Mix 18 Day Study-specific questionnaire Yes
Wordell, et al. 2012[48] Two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Providing Mix 144 Day Modified FFQ Yes
Yamaoka, et al. 2011[49] Each participant in the intervention group received twelve sessions of group counseling aimed at increasing energy intake at breakfast by modifying dietary intake and adopting appropriate habits. Educational Mix 24 2 weeks Modified FFQ Yes
Finnell, et al. 2017[50] The 12-week 1% Low-Fat Milk Has Perks! Intervention ran relying on television and radio commercials, print advertisements, billboards and bus wraps, point-of-sale promotional items, and digital media. Multiple Dairy 12 Week Milk sales by type (whole, 2%, 1%, and nonfat milk) Yes
Bernstein, et al. 2002[51] Nutrition education was designed to increase fruit, vegetable, and calcium-rich food consumption. The education program was provided through home visits, phone contacts, and letters. Educational Mix 24 2 weeks FFQ Yes
Ni Mhurchu, et al. 2010[52] Price discounts plus nutrition education. The price discount intervention consisted of an automatic 12.5% price reduction on all eligible healthier food products. Also, participants were mailed a printed package of food group-specific nutrition information by mail. Multiple Mix 24 Month Electronic scanner sales data Yes
Foster, et al. 2014[53] Intervention stores received a 6-month intervention to increase the purchase of recommended healthier items in 5 food and beverage categories. Strategies included (1) multiple facings: increased the number of facings of the recommended products; (2) prime placement: placed recommended products at arm/eye level and in the middle of the category aisle and reordered types of milk so that 2% milk was located on the left-hand side of the dairy case followed by 1%, skim and then whole milk; (3) signage: placed call-out signs with the recommended product’s name and price, and shelf runners below recommended products; and (4) secondary placement: mimicked shelf strategies (1 and 2) in all secondary placements (end caps, dead space stacks, etc.). Point-of-sale Mix 48 Week Supermarket milk sale data Yes
Freedman and Nickell, 2010[54] “Snack Smart” workshops, based on social cognitive theory, were conducted to assess changes in consumption of targeted food items. The program consisted of a 3-week, 6-h series of 5 workshops repeated in 8 different branch libraries over 3 months. Weekly 90-min after-school nutrition workshops were book-ended by two 45-min week-end workshops—the first involving parents and the last engaging parents and children. Educational Mix 12 Week FFQ No
Friedman, et al. 2007[55] The dietary intervention was focused on the family with small group sessions for the parents and for the children separately. There were lessons on the milk group (encouraged skim milk, low-fat cottage cheese, and low-fat puddings), grain group (encouraged adding cereals and whole-grain breads), and meat group (encouraged low-fat meat and how to identify and prepare low-fat meat, and demonstrated convenience meals with low-fat ingredients). Educational Mix 350 Week 24-h dietary recalls Yes
Hovell, et al. 2009[56] Children were taught how to engage in eat calcium-rich foods. Parents were taught behavior management techniques to modify children’s behaviors. Educational Dairy 8 Week 24-h dietary recalls Yes
Raby Powers, et al. 2005[57] Social cognitive theory-based nutrition education program to increase fruit, vegetable, and calcium-rich food consumption. Educational Mix 6 Week Pizza please, a specially designed interactive evaluation tool No
  1. Abbreviations: FFQ food frequency questionnaire