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Table 3 Study characteristics

From: The effect of behavioural interventions targeting hand hygiene practices among nurses in high-income hospital settings: a systematic review

Characteristic References
 Intensive care unit (ICU) Fox; Erasmus; Huis; Boyce
 Medical unit Stock; Huis
 Surgical unit Erasmus; Huis
 Mixed medical-surgical unit Stock; Harne-Britner; Boyce; Stella
 Paediatric unit Huis
 Progressive care/step-down unit Boyce; Stella
Sample type (HCWs)
 Nurses only Erasmus; Fox; Stock; Huis; Boyce
 Nurses and nursing assistants Harne-Britner; Stella
Sample size (HCWs)
< 20 Erasmus
 20–40 ---
 41–60 Stock
 > 60 Harne-Britner; Huis; Stella
 Unknown Fox; Boyce
Sample size (observations)
 < 100  
 100–500 Erasmus; Harne-Britner
 501–1500 Stock
 1501–2500 ---
 2501–5000 ---
 > 5000 Huis; Boyce; Stella
 Unknown Fox
Behavioural frameworks, theories, and approaches
 Behaviourist Theory Harne-Britner
 Change Theory Harne-Britner
 Field Theory Harne-Britner
 Health Action Process Approach Erasmus
 Social Cognitive Theory Harne-Britner; Huis
 Social Norms (Behavioural Economics) Stella
 Toyota Kata Boyce
 Not listed Fox, Stock
Study design
 Before-after Stock; Fox; Erasmus
 Case-control Harne-Britner
 Cluster randomized control Huis
 Quasi-experimental w/ interrupted time series Boyce; Stella
Assessment of compliance
 Direct observation Stock; Fox; Erasmus; Harne-Britner; Huis
 Electronic monitoring system Boyce; Stella
Length of Study
> 6 months ---
 6 months Erasmus; Stella
 12 months ---
 14 months Huis
 15 months Fox
 16 months Stock
 > 2 years Boyce
 Europe Stock; Erasmus; Huis
 North America Fox; Harne-Britner; Boyce; Stella
Assigned methodological quality score
 6 Erasmus; Harne-Britner; Boyce; Stella
 7 Fox; Huis; Stock