- Open Access
A Framework for Public Health in the United States
Public Health Reviewsvolume 32, pages174–189 (2010)
As in other countries, public heath in the United States continues to evolve to ensure healthy families and communities as well as individuals. Great achievements in the control of infectious and chronic disease and injuries will need to be sustained while we face new challenges, including providing universal access to high quality healthcare as well as addressing the underlying behavioral risk factors and the social, physical and environmental determinants of health. Meeting these challenges will require strengthening the governmental and non-governmental public health systems and working closely with other sectors.
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. First International Conference on Health Promotion Ottawa, 1986–WHO/HPR/HEP/95.1. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1986. http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/ottawa_charter_hp.pdf (Accessed 5 March, 2010).
Breslow L. Perspectives: the third revolution in health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2004;25:xiii–xviii.
World Health Organization. Definition of health. Available from URL: http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html. (Accessed 5 March, 2010).
Kindig D, Stoddart G. Models for population health: what is population health? Am J Public Health. 2003;93:380–3.
Barker DJP. Commentary: Birthweight and coronary heart disease in a historical cohort. Int J Epidemiol. 2006;35:886–7.
LeWinn KZ, Stroud LR, Molnar BE, Ware JH, Koenen KC, Buka SL. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with reduced childhood IQ. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:1700–10.
Healthy Start [homepage]. Available from URL: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29959028/ (Accessed 30 September, 2009).
National Head Start Foundation [home page]. Available from URL: http://www.nhsa.org/ (Accessed 30 September, 2009).
McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA. 1993;270:2207–12.
Mokdad AH, Marks JS, Stroup DF, Gerberding JL. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA. 2004; 291:1238–45.
Putnam RD. Bowling Alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2000.
Commission to Build a Healthier America. Beyond health care: new directions to a healthier America. Princeton, (NJ): Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; 2009.
National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences. Endocrine disruptors. http://www.niehs.nih.gov/health/topics/agents/endocrine/index.cfm (Accessed 12 January 2010).
Rudolph L. Climate change: the public health response. California Conference of Local Health Offiicers, June 2009. State of California. Available from URL: http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/ab32publichealth/meetings/061809/dph_climateoverview_061809.pdf (Accessed 5 March, 2010).
Institute of Medicine, Committee for the Study of the Future of Public Health. The future of public health. Washington (DC): National Academy Press; 1988.
National Association of County and City Health Officials. 2008 national profile of local health departments. Washington (DC): National Association of County and City Health Officials; 2009. Available from URL: http://www.naccho.org/topics/infrastructure/profile/resources/2008reports/upload/NACCHO_2008_ProfileReport_post-to-website-2.pdf (Accessed 30 September, 2009).
U.S. Task Force on Community Preventive Services. The community guide:what works to promote health. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available from URL: http://www.thecommunityguide.org/index.html (Accessed 12 January, 2010).
UCLA School of Public Health. The UCLA Health Impact Assessment Clearinghouse Learning and Information Center (HIA-CLIC). Los Angeles. Available from URL: http://www.ph.ucla.edu/hs/hiaclic/ (Accessed 2 October, 2009).
US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2020: the road ahead. Available from URL: http://www.healthypeople.gov/hp2020/ (Accessed 2 October, 2009).
National Committee for Quality Assurance. Washington (DC). Available from URL: http://www.ncqa.org/ (Accessed 2 October, 2009).
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. National health expenditure data. Washington (DC): US Department of Health and Human Services. Available from URL: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/nationalhealthexpenddata/ (Accessed 2 October, 2009).